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SHL建筑事务所|格陵兰岛安斯特敦监狱

2021-08-11 发布
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刘志鑫

积分:61

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格陵兰岛首府努克一处崎岖而空旷的海滨山地上,安斯特敦监狱——由SHL建筑事务所联合Friis & Moltke事务所设计的惩教设施——是一个教育改造犯人并引导他们重新回归社会的场所,也是一次关于“建筑具有影响人类行为的力量”的大胆陈述。安斯特敦监狱是格陵兰岛唯一一座封闭式设施,设计初衷是为服刑人员带来生活的目标和希望,使他们能从家庭团聚中得到鼓励,积极服刑改造。安斯特敦监狱同时为监狱的工作人员提供了现代化的工作环境——戒备深严的安保措施可以有效防止越狱、非法擅入监狱和携带违禁品的发生。

Nestled in the rugged terrain of Greenland’s seaside capital, Anstalten in Nuuk – a new correctional facility designed by Danish architectural firms Schmidt Hammer Lassen and Friis & Moltke – is the setting for progressive rehabilitation, and a bold statement about the power of architecture to affect human behav-ior. Greenland’s only facility with a closed section, Anstalten is designed to give the inmates a sense of purpose and hope, while allowing families in Nuuk to be reunited. The facility also serves as a contempo-rary work environment for personnel – a high level of security for both inmates and staff prevents es-capes, illegal entry, and smuggling of illegal objects.

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安斯特敦监狱将戈特霍布峡湾的景色尽收眼底 Ny Anstalt, with sweeping views of Godthaab Fjord ©Adam Mørk

8,000平方米的监狱,在北极圈以南265公里格陵兰岛的海岸线上,沿基地自然岩石景观的轮廓排布,由规整精确的方形空间组合而成。建筑的朝向和尺度使之与周围环境融为一体。

The 8,000-square-metre facility is composed of a series of blocks positioned to follow the natural con-tours of the rocky landscape along Greenland’s coast 265 kilometers south of the Arctic Circle. The ori-entation and scale of the project make the building appear subordinate to its surroundings.

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总平面图 Site plan ©SHL Architects

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顺应自然地形布置 According to the natural topography ©SHL Architects

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建筑与四周岩石景观和自然轮廓融为一体 Ny Anstalt’s building form follows the natural contours of the rocky landscape ©Adam Mørk

具有锈蚀效果的耐候钢外立面,能适应当地的气候条件,并与周围的景观呼应。
The burnt sienna corten steel facades, impacted by the local climactic conditions, complement the surrounding landscape.

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具有锈蚀效果的耐候钢外立面 The burnt sienna corten steel facades ©Adam Mørk
充满人性关怀的惩教设施

A humane facility that rehabilitates through design


安斯特敦监狱被设计成一座三层楼的小村落,包含居住区、工作区、教育和体育设施、图书馆、医务室和祈祷室,还设有行政区和多种技术装备与安保器材。安斯特敦监狱包含安全警戒性从最低到最高的五个建筑单元,以及员工办公室,休闲和探监空间。

Anstalten is designed like a small village over three levels with residential blocks, workspaces, education and sports facilities, a library, a health center, and a chapel. In addition, there is an administration divi-sion and various technical and security installations. Ny Anstalt consists of five housing units that range from minimum to maximum security, as well as facilities for employment, leisure, andvisitation.

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安斯特敦监狱外观 Anstalten's exterior ©Adam Mørk

基于格陵兰岛的自然景观和传统技艺,当地的艺术家为监狱的公共区域设计了艺术品,还用雕刻装饰了监狱的围墙。其中,体育馆中的艺术作品来自视觉艺术家Julie Edel Hardenberg,这些图案的灵感来自格陵兰当地民族的神话传说;Julie Edel Hardenberg还用动物图案组成的雪花装饰了祈祷室的墙面,这些作品由白色的有机玻璃和珠子制成,灵感来自格陵兰当地民族的传统服饰;监狱5米高的围墙上装饰着格陵兰岛当地艺术家Aka Høegh创作的动物图案。
The interiors are appointed with traditional Green-land flourishes by local artists to enrich communal areas with landscape paintings, traditional designs, and carve etchings into the perimeter wall. The gymnasium features works by visual artist Julie Edel Hardenberg. Themotifs are inspired by Greenlandic mythology. Julie Edel Hardenberg adorned the walls of the prayer room with snowflakes formed by animal motifs. Made of white plexiglass and beads,the works are inspired by the Greenlandic national costume. The enclosed area of the correctional facility is surrounded by a five-metre-high wall adorned with animal motifs by Greenlandic artist Aka Høegh.

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体育馆 Gymnasium ©Adam Mørk

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祈祷室 Prayer room ©Adam Mørk

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监狱5米高的围墙上装饰动物图案 Five-metre-high wall adorned with animal motifs ©Adam Mørk

监狱包含三个监区,可容纳76名服刑人员,其中40名服刑人员居住在封闭区域,每个服刑人员都拥有12㎡的私人空间。落地窗遍布公共空间,开放性是安斯特敦监狱的重要理念之一。公共空间的落地窗模糊了室内外的界限,将自然引入室内。大多数犯人能通过自己房间中的不设铁栅栏的窗户一览无余地看到围墙之外的海洋和山脉之景。无栅栏窗户避免了服刑人员之间的视觉交流,取而代之,将他们的视线引向峡湾的自然风光。

The project consists of three residential units with 12-square-metre private rooms for 76 inmates, 40 of which house inmates in the closed section. A panoramic window spans the common area, openness is a central theme at Ny Anstalt. Large windows in the common areas draw nature inside. Most of the inmates have an unrestricted view towards the sea from the bar-less windows in their rooms. The design of the bar-less windows in each living unit prevents visual connection between cells and instead directs the view out towards the fjord.

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公共空间的落地窗将自然引入室内 Large windows in the common areas draw nature inside ©Adam Mørk

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观景意向手绘 Viewing image sketch ©SHL Architects

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居住区的无栅栏窗户 Bar-less windows in each living unit ©Adam Mørk

建筑旨在通过以接触自然的方式来减少犯人生理及心理上的暴力感。“人性化惩教设施”的设计模拟了正常生活的方式和节奏,希望帮助服刑人员在获释后能够更成功地重返社会,降低重新犯罪率。

The project is designed to diminish physical and psychological violence by providing access to nature. This “humane facility” concept mimics the rhythm and structure of everyday life in the hope that once released, the offenders will have a greater chance of successful reintegration into society, with lower rates of re-of- fending.

连接住宿单元和监狱其他空间的走道,让服刑人员可以从物理距离和精神距离区分“住所”和“工作场所”,从而模仿了监狱外的正常生活。

The walkway connecting the housing units and the remainder of the facility gives inmates a physical and mental separation between the “residence” and the “workplace,” mimicking life outside the prison.

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走道 The walkway ©Adam Mørk

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监狱周围的自然景观成为建筑和公共空间的一部分 The surrounding natural landscape permeate the housing units and common areas ©Adam Mørk

家庭重聚,以亲情帮教感化

A symbol for family reunificatio
n

过去,在格陵兰岛犯下严重罪行的犯人,都会被转移到3,000公里之外的丹麦服刑。如今,这些囚犯以及相关的工作人员将迁回格陵兰岛,在现代化和人性化的环境中服刑或工作,并受到自然的感化。这种举措不仅影响到高墙之内的囚犯和工作人员,还帮助囚犯在格陵兰岛的亲人们与他们团聚。犯人将不再被送往丹麦,而是能够在离家更近的地方服刑,以亲情帮教鼓励服刑人员认真改造。

Until now, serving a sentence for a severe crime committed in Greenland meant relocating some 3,000 kilometers away to Denmark. Inmates, who are currently moving into the facility, and the personnel who work with them, now have dramatic seascape views and modern, thoughtful surroundings in which to work and serve their sentence. But the changes will not only affect those within Anstalten’s walls; the facility will make reunification possible between inmates and their families living in Nuuk as inmates will no longer be relocated to Denmark, but will instead be able to serve their time closer to home.

现在安斯特敦监狱已经投入使用,努克原建于上世纪六十年代的监狱已经关闭,狱中囚犯已被转移到这座新的设施中。当前被关押在丹麦的格陵兰囚犯将有机会返回自己的家乡,在格陵兰岛内获得新的改造机会。

Now that Anstalten is open, Nuuk’s former 1960s prison has closed, allowing its inmates to be trans-ferred to the new facility. Offenders currently incarcerated in Denmark will be offered the chance to return to their home country for potential new opportunities within Greenland.

项目名称:安斯特敦监狱
项目位置:格陵兰岛努克市
项目状态:于2020年完成
项目规模:8387 m²
设计单位:SHL建筑事务所(Schmidt Hammer Lassen Architects)
项目业主:丹麦司法部 / 丹麦监狱和缓刑服务部
合作建筑师:Friis & Moltke
景观设计:Lytt (Møller & Grønborg)
综合顾问:Rambøll A/S
参与竞赛:2013年限制性竞赛 第一名
所获奖项:2017, WAN Future Projects Civic Award
项目摄影:Adam Mørk

刘志鑫

积分:61

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